Ornament 5

In older music we find many symbols and grace (smaller) notes called ornaments that are used to decorate or "ornament" the melody.

Notation

Appoggiatura


a) If the main note, including dots and ties, can be divided in two equal parts the appogiatura takes half the duration of the main note.

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b) If the main note can be divided into three equal parts the appogiatura takes two thirds of the duration of the main note.

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c) In other cases the convention is to divide the note in two equal parts.

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Acciaccatura


The Acciaccatura is written with an oblique stroke through the stem.

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Grupetto


The gruppetto is an ornament that surrounds the main note.

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Mordent


The upper mordent is indicated with this symbol m.

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The lower mordent is indicated with the symbol M.

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Turn


A Turn ornament is indicated with the symbol T.

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The turn symbol can also be placed between notes.

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If a dotted note ends on a beat the turn is as follows.

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The dot is converted to a note if the dot does not end on a beat.

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If the note is double dotted then the first or the second dot is converted to a note.

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If the main note cannot be played longer they can all be played with equal length.

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Trill


When a trill is played the main note and the note above or below are played fast as often as the duration of the main note permits. The trill is marked with a tr symbol and sometime a wavy line thereafter. If grace notes are placed before the trill the trill starts with the grace note otherwise the trill starts with the main note or the note above. It depends on the main note duration and tempo how many notes can be played. If the last notes of the trill happens to be the same note as the note that follows an additional note is added and the last five notes then become a quintuplet. Accidental that is placed above the trill indicates that the above note should be played with that accidental.

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Grace notes are used to indicate the starting note.

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Here are grace notes used to indicate the starting and the ending notes.

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Arpeggio


The arpeggio is indicated with a wavy vertical line before a chord.

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